Breed Improvement and Genetic Evaluation

CULLING AND REPLACEMENT RATES IN DAIRY HERDS IN CANADA

CULLING AND REPLACEMENT RATES IN DAIRY HERDS IN CANADA
COWS 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Number of herds enrolled on a milk recording program
Herds 9,594 9,511 9,273 9,039 8,585 8,299
Cows 715,192 724,706 698,686 696,737 694,265 691,743
Culling Reasons Number of cows Total (%) Number of cows Total (%) Number of cows Total (%) Number of cows Total (%) Number of cows Total (%) Number of cows Total (%)
Reproductive 45,481 17.6% 49,346 17.6% 49,815 17.3% 47,689 18.0% 44,016 17.7% 42,251 17.2%
Mastitis 30,029 11.6% 34,876 12.5% 35,695 12.4% 30,569 11.5% 29,151 11.7% 27,708 11.3%
Feet and leg problems 19,914 7.7% 21,761 7.8% 22,399 7.8% 19,666 7.4% 18,833 7.6% 17,643 7.2%
Low milk production 17,107 6.6% 19,696 7.0% 20,668 7.2% 19,159 7.2% 18,870 7.6% 17,650 7.2%
Sickness 13,810 5.3% 14,430 5.2% 14,156 4.9% 13,171 5.0% 12,677 5.1% 12,140 4.9%
Injury to udder/teats 2,441 0.9% 2,579 0.9% 2,872 1.0% 2,577 1.0% 2,168 0.9% 2,016 0.8%
Injury/Accident 9,656 3.7% 10,595 3.8% 10,333 3.6% 9,768 3.7% 9,667 3.9% 9,414 3.8%
Old age 5,415 2.1% 5,878 2.1% 6,053 2.1% 5,199 2.0% 5,088 2.0% 4,785 1.9%
Difficult calving 1,784 0.7% 1,729 0.6% 1,807 0.6% 1,754 0.7% 1,508 0.6% 1,520 0.6%
Bad temperament 1,770 0.7% 2,105 0.8% 2,402 0.8% 2,197 0.8% 1,847 0.7% 1,758 0.7%
Conformation 1,483 0.6% 1,607 0.6% 1,824 0.6% 1,767 0.7% 1,585 0.6% 1,502 0.6%
Displaced abomasum 1,453 0.6% 1,151 0.4% 1,175 0.4% 1,011 0.4% 892 0.4% 848 0.3%
Milk fever 1,586 0.6% 1,390 0.5% 1,373 0.5% 1,259 0.5% 1,165 0.5% 1,085 0.4%
Slow milker 1,292 0.5% 1,628 0.6% 1,816 0.6% 1,447 0.5% 1,348 0.5% 1,277 0.5%
Arthritis 990 0.4% 951 0.3% 997 0.3% 887 0.3% 838 0.3% 746 0.3%
Pneumonia 712 0.3% 703 0.3% 811 0.3% 786 0.3% 799 0.3% 903 0.4%
Staph aureus 734 0.3% 846 0.3% 774 0.3% 707 0.3% 570 0.2% 537 0.2%
Leukosis 885 0.3% 760 0.3% 637 0.2% 698 0.3% 627 0.3% 565 0.2%
Low fat 48 0.0% 62 0.0% 43 0.0% 57 0.0% 57 0.0% 71 0.0%
Paratuberculose 92 0.0% 79 0.0% 81 0.0% 89 0.0% 77 0.0% 57 0.0%
Low protein 38 0.0% 23 0.0% 36 0.0% 31 0.0% 21 0.0% 16 0.0%
Unknown 52,157 20.2% 55,702 19.9% 58,350 20.3% 50,555 19.1% 46,408 18.7% 50,524 20.6%
Total culling reasons 208,877 80.9% 227,897 81.5% 234,117 81.5% 211,043 79.7% 198,212 79.7% 195,016 79.4%
Culling Rate 29.21% 31.45% 33.51% 30.29% 28.55% 28.19%
Other Reasons for replacement Number of cows Total (%) Number of cows Total (%) Number of cows Total (%) Number of cows Total (%) Number of cows Total (%) Number of cows Total (%)
Sold for Production
Dairy production 34,548 13.4% 36,728 13.1% 36,856 12.8% 37,491 14.1% 35,085 14.1% 34,358 14.0%
Exported 1,291 0.5% 1,367 0.5% 1,929 0.7% 2,276 0.9% 2,239 0.9% 2,291 0.9%
Transfers 956 0.4% 850 0.3% 1,078 0.4% 976 0.4% 1,021 0.4% 859 0.3%
Rented out 665 0.3% 650 0.2% 664 0.2% 621 0.2% 420 0.2% 521 0.2%
Mortality
Poison 296 0.1% 280 0.1% 270 0.1% 240 0.1% 190 0.1% 218 0.1%
Peritonitis 341 0.1% 272 0.1% 296 0.1% 296 0.1% 260 0.1% 232 0.1%
Bloat 97 0.0% 80 0.0% 86 0.0% 110 0.0% 75 0.0% 79 0.0%
Electrocution 27 0.0% 29 0.0% 29 0.0% 12 0.0% 11 0.0% 11 0.0%
Others 11,059 4.3% 11,641 4.2% 11,815 4.1% 11,893 4.5% 11,061 4.4% 11,941 4.9%
Total other reasons for replacement 49,280 19.1% 51,897 18.5% 53,023 18.5% 53,915 20.3% 50,362 20.3% 50,510 20.6%
Total Replacement Rate1 36.10% 38.61% 41.10% 38.03% 35.80% 35.49%

1 Includes total culling reasons and total other reasons for replacement
Source: CanWest DHI and Valacta
Calculations done by AAFC-AID, Market Information Section

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